The Council of Heads of Government is the second highest council in the organization. The Council also holds annual summits where members discuss issues of multilateral cooperation. The city council also approves the organization`s budget. The current Council of Heads of Government consists of: the MEMBER States of the ESC will also work together to counter the activities of individuals and organisations in the field of recruitment, training and use of terrorists and propaganda, as well as the justification or financing of terrorist acts. A Researcher from the European Parliament said that “institutional weaknesses, a lack of common funding for joint projects and competing national interests have prevented the SSCs from achieving a higher level of regional cooperation.”  The entire structure of the organization must create multilateral partnerships to help sovereign members coordinate strategies and approaches to address pressing international issues and regional needs. It also allows Member States to focus their efforts on common objectives, in line with the principles of voluntary cooperation and equitable distribution of responsibilities. The historic SCO Leaders` Summit in Astana, Kazakhstan, held from 8-9 June 2017, opened a new phase in the organization`s development. One of its main outcomes has been the granting of full SCO membership to India and Pakistan. The accession of these two powerful and influential South Asian countries has enabled the CSSS to strengthen its capacity and expand its capabilities, including in the area of combating existing and emerging challenges and threats. Esc`s common response to the ever-increasing threat of extremism is the ESC Convention on Countering Extremism adopted at the Astana Summit.
This document includes the international legal framework for combating new challenges and threats, as well as the Shanghai Convention on Counter-Terrorism, Separatism and Extremism, the Shanghai Convention for Counter-Terrorism Cooperation and the Member States` Programme for 2016-2018 on Counter-Terrorism Cooperation , separatism and extremism, as well as key UN instruments, such as the UN Comprehensive Counter-Terrorism Strategy and relevant UN Security Council resolutions, to strengthen. The CSO Convention on Countering Extremism aims to strengthen security, improve effective cooperation between authorities and improve the legal framework in this area. By respecting the principles of openness, the SCO does not intend to form alliances or direct its actions against a sovereign entity. It actively and systematically establishes dialogue, exchanges and cooperation and defends strict adherence to the goals and principles set out in the Charter of the United Nations, such as the equality and sovereignty of States, the inadmissibility of interference in their internal affairs, respect for territorial integrity, the inviolability of borders, non-hearing, peaceful settlement of disputes, non-use of force or threat of force. , as well as other universally recognized norms of international law. with the aim of preserving peace and security, establishing partnerships between states, protecting national sovereignty and respecting the right to determine one`s own destiny and the way forward for political, socio-economic and cultural development. In addition to the agreements reached by the CSO Member States on key issues on regional and global agendas, the text of the Astana Declaration of the Heads of State of the Shanghai Organization for Cooperation, which is a final document of the Astana Summit, outlines other measures the Organization will take against threats to international peace and security.